Basic Facts

History of Pakistan

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Indus Priest King Statue from Mohenjo-Daro

Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.[51] The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab.[52] The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh[53] and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation[54][55][56][57][58] (2,800–1,800 BCE) at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.[59][60]

Standing Buddha from Gandhara

The Vedic Civilisation (1500–500 BCE), characterised by Indo-Aryan culture, during this period the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed and this culture later became well established in the region.[61][62]Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre.[63] The Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Taká¹£aÅ›ilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, which was founded around 1000 BCE.[64][53] Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire (around 519 BCE), Alexander the Great‘s empire in 326 BCE[65] and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE.[53] The Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria (180–165 BCE) included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander (165–150 BCE), prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.[53][66] Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, which was established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE.[67][68] The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis.[68] The ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, “the like of which had not been seen in Greece,” and was also recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE.[69][70][71][72]

At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty (489–632 CE) of Sindh ruled this region and the surrounding territories.[73] The Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, which, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan.

The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the Indus valley from Sindh to Multan in southern Punjab in 711 CE.[74][75][76][77][78] The Pakistan government’s official chronology identifies this as the time when the foundation of Pakistan was laid.[74][79][80] The Early Medieval period (642–1219 CE) witnessed the spread of Islam in the region. During this period, Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting a majority of the regional Buddhist and Hindu population to Islam.[81] These developments set the stage for the rule of several successive Muslim empires in the region, including the Ghaznavid Empire (975–1187 CE), the Ghorid Kingdom, and the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526 CE). The Lodi dynasty, the last of the Delhi Sultanate, was replaced by the Mughal Empire (1526–1857 CE).

The Mughals introduced Persian literature and high culture, establishing the roots of Indo-Persian culture in the region.[82] From the region of modern-day Pakistan, key cities during the Mughal rule were Lahore and Thatta,[83] both of which were chosen as the site of impressive Mughal buildings.[84] In the early 16th century, the region remained under the Mughal Empire ruled by Muslim emperors.[85] By the early 18th century, increasing European influence contributed to the slow disintegration of the empire as the lines between commercial and political dominance became increasingly blurred.[85]

During this time, the English East India Company had established coastal outposts.[85] Control over the seas, greater resources, technology, and British military protection led the Company to increasingly flex its military muscle, allowing the Company to gain control over the subcontinent by 1765 and sideline European competitors.[86] Expanding access beyond Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annex or subdue most of region by the 1820s.[85] Many historians see this as the start of the region’s colonial period.[85] By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and itself effectively made an arm of British administration, the Company began more deliberately to enter non-economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture.[85] Such reforms included the enforcement of the English Education Act in 1835 and the introduction of the Indian Civil Service (ICS).[87] Traditional madrasahs — primary institutions of higher learning for Muslims in the subcontinent — were no longer supported by the English Crown, and nearly all of the madrasahs lost their financial endowment.[88]

Colonial period

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817–1898), whose vision formed the basis of Pakistan
Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948) served as Pakistan’s first Governor-General and the leader of the Pakistan Movement

The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire in the early 18th century enabled the Sikh Empire to control larger areas until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over the Indian subcontinent.[89] A rebellion in 1857 called the Sepoy mutiny was the region’s major armed struggle against the British Empire and Queen Victoria.[90] Divergence in the relationship between Hinduism and Islam created a major rift in British India that led to racially motivated religious violence in India.[91] The language controversy further escalated the tensions between Hindus and Muslims.[92] The Hindu renaissance witnessed an awakening of intellectualism in traditional Hinduism and saw the emergence of more assertive influence in the social and political spheres in British India.[93][94] An intellectual movement to counter the Hindu renaissancewas led by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, who helped found the All-India Muslim League in 1901 and envisioned, as well as advocated for, the two-nation theory.[89] In contrast to the Indian Congress‘s anti-British efforts, the Muslim League was a pro-British movement whose political program inherited the British values that would shape Pakistan’s future civil society.[95] In events during World War I, British Intelligence foiled an anti-English conspiracy involving the nexus of Congress and the German Empire.[citation needed] The largely non-violent independence struggle led by the Indian Congress engaged millions of protesters in mass campaigns of civil disobedience in the 1920s and 1930s against the British Empire.[96][97][98]

Over 10 million people were uprooted from their homeland and travelled on foot, bullock carts, and trains to their promised new home during the Partition of India. During the partition, between 200,000 to 2,000,000 people were killed in the retributive genocide.[99]

The Muslim League slowly rose to mass popularity in the 1930s amid fears of under-representation and neglect of Muslims in politics. In his presidential address of 29 December 1930, Allama Iqbal called for “the amalgamation of North-West Muslim-majority Indian states” consisting of Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sindh, and Balochistan.[100] The perceived neglect of muslim interests by Congress led provincial governments during the period of 1937–39 convinced Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan to espouse the two-nation theory and led the Muslim League to adopt the Lahore Resolution of 1940, popularly known as the Pakistan Resolution.[89] In World War II, Jinnah and British-educated founding fathers in the Muslim League supported the United Kingdom’s war efforts, countering opposition against it whilst working towards Sir Syed‘s vision.[101]

Pakistan Movement

The 1946 elections resulted in the Muslim League winning 90 percent of the seats reserved for Muslims. Thus, the 1946 election was effectively a plebiscite in which the Indian Muslims were to vote on the creation of Pakistan, a plebiscite won by the Muslim League.[102]This victory was assisted by the support given to the Muslim League by the rural peasantry of Bengal as well as the support of the landowners of Sindh and Punjab. The Congress, which initially denied the Muslim League’s claim of being the sole representative of Indian Muslims, was now forced to recognise the fact.[102] The British had no alternative except to take Jinnah’s views into account as he had emerged as the sole spokesperson of India’s Muslims. However, the British did not want India to be partitioned, and in one last effort to prevent it they devised the Cabinet Mission plan.[103]

As the cabinet mission failed, the British government announced its intention to end the British Raj in India in 1946–47.[104] Nationalists in British India — including Jawaharlal Nehruand Abul Kalam Azad of Congress, Jinnah of the All-India Muslim League, and Master Tara Singh representing the Sikhs — agreed to the proposed terms of transfer of power and independence in June 1947 with the Viceroy of India, Lord Mountbatten of Burma.[105] As the United Kingdom agreed to the partitioning of India in 1947, the modern state of Pakistan was established on 14 August 1947 (27th of Ramadan in 1366 of the Islamic Calendar), amalgamating the Muslim-majority eastern and northwestern regions of British India.[98] It comprised the provinces of Balochistan, East Bengal, the North-West Frontier Province, West Punjab, and Sindh.[89][105]

In the riots that accompanied the partition in Punjab Province, it is believed that between 200,000 and 2,000,000[106][107][108][109][110][111] people were killed in what some have described as a retributive genocide between the religions[112][113] while 50,000 Muslim women were abducted and raped by Hindu and Sikh men and 33,000 Hindu and Sikh women also experienced the same fate at the hands of Muslims.[114][115][116][117] Around 6.5 million Muslims moved from India to West Pakistan and 4.7 million Hindus and Sikhs moved from West Pakistan to India.[118] It was the largest mass migration in human history.[119][120][121] Dispute over Jammu and Kashmir led to the First Kashmir War in 1948.[122][123]

Independence and modern Pakistan


The American CIA film on Pakistan made in 1950 examines the history and geography of Pakistan.

“You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place or worship in this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business of the State.”

—Muhammad Ali Jinnah‘s first speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan[124]

After independence in 1947, Jinnah, the President of the Muslim League, became the nation’s first Governor-General as well as the first President-Speaker of the Parliament,[125] but he died of tuberculosis on 11 September 1948.[126] Meanwhile, Pakistan’s founding fathers agreed to appoint Liaquat Ali Khan, the secretary-generalof the party, the nation’s first Prime Minister. With dominion status in the Commonwealth of Nations, independent Pakistan had two British monarchs before it became a republic.[125]

The creation of Pakistan was never fully accepted by many British leaders, among them Lord Mountbatten.[127] Mountbatten clearly expressed his lack of support and faith in the Muslim League’s idea of Pakistan.[128] Jinnah refused Mountbatten’s offer to serve as Governor-General of Pakistan.[129] When Mountbatten was asked by Collins and Lapierre if he would have sabotaged Pakistan had he known that Jinnah was dying of tuberculosis, he replied ‘most probably’.[130]

Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, a respected Deobandi alim (scholar) who occupied the position of Shaykh al-Islam in Pakistan in 1949, and Maulana Mawdudi of Jamaat-i-Islamiplayed a pivotal role in the demand for an Islamic constitution. Mawdudi demanded that the Constituent Assembly make an explicit declaration affirming the “supreme sovereignty of God” and the supremacy of the shariah in Pakistan.[131]

A significant result of the efforts of the Jamaat-i-Islami and the ulama was the passage of the Objectives Resolution in March 1949. The Objectives Resolution, which Liaquat Ali Khan called the second most important step in Pakistan’s history, declared that “sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to God Almighty alone and the authority which He has delegated to the State of Pakistan through its people for being exercised within the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred trust”. The Objectives Resolution has been incorporated as a preamble to the constitutions of 1956, 1962, and 1973.[132]

Democracy was stalled by the martial law that had been enforced by President Iskander Mirza, who was replaced by army chief, General Ayub Khan. After adopting a presidential system in 1962, the country experienced exceptional growth until a second war with India in 1965 that led to an economic downturn and wide-scale public disapproval in 1967.[133][134] Consolidating control from Ayub Khan in 1969, President Yahya Khan had to deal with a devastating cyclone that caused 500,000 deaths in East Pakistan.[135]

Signing of the Tashkent Declaration to end hostilitieswith India in 1965 in Tashkent, USSR, by President Ayubalongside Bhutto (centre) and Aziz Ahmed (left)

In 1970 Pakistan held its first democratic elections since independence, meant to mark a transition from military rule to democracy, but after the East Pakistani Awami League won against the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), Yahya Khan and the military establishment refused to hand over power.[136][137] Operation Searchlight, a military crackdown on the Bengali nationalist movement, led to a declaration of independence and the waging of a war of liberation by the Bengali Mukti Bahini forces in East Pakistan, with support from India.[137][138] However, in West Pakistan the conflict was described as a civil war as opposed to a war of liberation.[139]

Independent researchers estimate that between 300,000 and 500,000 civilians died during this period while the Bangladesh government puts the number of dead at three million,[140] a figure that is now nearly universally regarded as excessively inflated.[141] Some academics such as Rudolph Rummel and Rounaq Jahan say both sides[142] committed genocide; others such as Richard Sisson and Leo E. Rose believe there was no genocide.[143] In response to India’s support for the insurgency in East Pakistan, preemptive strikes on India by Pakistan’s air force, navy, and marines sparked a conventional war in 1971 that resulted in an Indian victory and East Pakistan gaining independence as Bangladesh.[137]

With Pakistan surrendering in the war, Yahya Khan was replaced by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as president; the country worked towards promulgating its constitution and putting the country on the road to democracy. Democratic rule resumed from 1972 to 1977 — an era of self-consciousness, intellectual leftism, nationalism, and nationwide reconstruction.[144] In 1972 Pakistan embarked on an ambitious plan to develop its nuclear deterrence capability with the goal of preventing any foreign invasion; the country’s first nuclear power plant was inaugurated in that same year.[145][146] Accelerated in response to India’s first nuclear test in 1974, this crash program was completed in 1979.[146]

Democracy ended with a military coup in 1977 against the leftist PPP, which saw General Zia-ul-Haq become the president in 1978. From 1977 to 1988, President Zia’s corporatisation and economic Islamisation initiatives led to Pakistan becoming one of the fastest-growing economies in South Asia.[147] While building up the country’s nuclear program, increasing Islamisation,[148] and the rise of a homegrown conservative philosophy, Pakistan helped subsidise and distribute US resources to factions of the mujahideen against the USSR‘s intervention in communist Afghanistan.[149][150] Pakistan’s North-West Frontier Province became a base for the anti-Soviet Afghan fighters, with the province’s influential Deobandi ulama playing a significant role in encouraging and organising the ‘jihad’.[151]

President Zia died in a plane crash in 1988, and Benazir Bhutto, daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was elected as the country’s first female Prime Minister. The PPP was followed by conservative Pakistan Muslim League (N), and over the next decade the leaders of the two parties fought for power, alternating in office while the country’s situation worsened; economic indicators fell sharply, in contrast to the 1980s. This period is marked by prolonged stagflation, instability, corruption, nationalism, geopolitical rivalry with India, and the clash of left wingright wing ideologies.[152][153] As PML(N) secured a supermajority in elections in 1997, Sharif authorised nuclear testings (See:Chagai-I and Chagai-II), as a retaliation to the second nuclear tests ordered by India, led by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee in May 1998.[154]

President George W. Bush meets with President Musharraf in Islamabadduring his 2006 visit to Pakistan.

Military tension between the two countries in the Kargil district led to the Kargil War of 1999, and turmoil in civic-military relations allowed General Pervez Musharraf to take over through a bloodless coup d’état.[155][156] Musharraf governed Pakistan as chief executive from 1999 to 2001 and as President from 2001 to 2008 — a period of enlightenment, social liberalism, extensive economic reforms,[157] and direct involvement in the US-led war on terrorism. When the National Assembly historically completed its first full five-year term on 15 November 2007, the new elections were called by the Election Commission.[158]

After the assassination of Benazir Bhutto in 2007, the PPP secured the most votes in the elections of 2008, appointing party member Yousaf Raza Gillani as Prime Minister.[159] Threatened with impeachment, President Musharraf resigned on 18 August 2008, and was succeeded by Asif Ali Zardari.[160][161][162] Clashes with the judicature prompted Gillani‘s disqualification from the Parliament and as the Prime Minister in June 2012.[163] By its own financial calculations, Pakistan’s involvement in the war on terrorism has cost up to ~$118 billion,[164] sixty thousand casualties and more than 1.8 million displaced civilians.[165] The general election held in 2013 saw the PML(N) almost achieve a supermajority, following which Nawaz Sharif was elected as the Prime Minister, returning to the post for the third time in fourteen years, in a democratic transition.[166]

Role of Islam in Pakistan

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